PS-4.2    Explain how the process of covalent bonding provides chemical stability through the sharing of electrons.
Key Concepts:
Covalent bond: sharing electrons, electron pair
Group
  Atoms of nonmetals can bond to each other by sharing valence electrons to achieve a stable electron structure. When atoms of nonmetals share valence electrons the bond formed is referred to as a covalent bond. Covalent bonding is the strong attraction that holds together the atoms of nonmetallic elements. Covalent bonding can occur between atoms of the same nonmetal elements and between nonmetal atoms of different elements.  As shown in diagrams "A" through "C" below, two atoms of the same nonmetal element can bond by sharing pairs of valence electrons.
          
Two Oxygen atoms, each with 6 valence electrons.
Two Oxygen atoms getting closer...
A covalently bonded molecule of diatomic Oxygen! O2 ( Sharing 2 pair of Valence electrons forms a double Bond.)
Here is another example of covalent bonding. In diagram "B" two atoms of Fluorine form a covalent bond by sharing a single pair of valence electrons.
Diagram B
       
Two Fluorine atoms,  each with 7 valence electrons.
Two Fluorine atoms getting closer...
A covalently bonded molecule of diatomic Fluorine! F2. ( Sharing 1 pair of valence electrons forms a single bond.)
Here is another example of covalent bonding. In diagram "C" two atoms of Nitrogen form a covalent bond by 3 pairs of valence electrons.
Diagram C
                 
 
Two Nitrogen atoms, each with 5 valence electrons
Two Nitrogen atoms getting closer...
A covalently bonded  molecule of diatomic Nitrogen! N2
( Sharing 3 pairs of valence electrons forms a triple bond.)
Diagram D
  
A carbon atom and two Oxygen atoms...
Share valence electrons. Now they all have a stable electron structure...A molecule of C02