PS-6.1    Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy, and thermal energy).
Key concepts
Energy: mechanical, electrical, chemical, light, sound, thermal
Work
Law of conservation of energy
  Bt definition energy is the capacity to do work. There are numerous kinds of energy such as:
     Kinetic Energy- Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by moving masses. Masses may be in the form of vibrating particles, like atoms or molecules, or even a moving train. The kinetic energy an object has depends on its mass and velocity. Note that the velocity of each cart in diagram "1" is the same, but the cart labeled "A" has the greatest kinetic energy because it has a greater mass than the car labeled "B.

Diagram 1
In diagram 2 cart "A" has more kinetic energy than cart "B" because it has a greater velocity.
 
Diagram 2
Remember, kinetic energy depends on both the mass and the velocity of an object.
    Potential Energy- Potential energy is stored energy. Energy can be stored in numerous ways. Gravitational potential energy is energy that is stored in an object because it has been lifted above a surface. If you climb a ladder you are gaining gravitational potential energy as you climb higher.
 
Mechanical energy energy due to the position or the movement of something.   Mechanical energy can be potential kinetic or the sum of the two. One example of mechanical energy is the energy the mooving parts of an automobile engine have.
Chemical energy is a type of energy associated with atoms, ions, and molecules and the bonds they form.  Chemical energy will change to another form of energy when a chemical reaction occurs. The potential energy of bonds holding atoms together can be released when the bonds between the atoms are broken in a chemical reaction.
Electrical energy is energy associated with current and voltage. Moving electrons represent electrical energy. A difference in charge between two points represents electrical potential energy.
Thermal energy (heat) is associated with the movement of molecules. When atoms or molecules gain heat energy they move faster because they contain more energy.
Light energy is energy that associated with electromagnetic waves such as light and radio waves.
Sound energy is energy associated longitudinal mechanical waves.